PI, A-93: Links Between Production and Perception in Speech


B.A., Rice University (cum laude), 1976
(Four full majors completed: Linguistics, English, Anthropology, German)
(B.A. Thesis: Die Sprache als Finger in der Philosophie Wittgensteins)
M.A., Yale University, 1978 (Linguistics)
M.Phil., Yale University, 1979 (Linguistics)
Ph.D., Yale University, 1982 (Linguistics)
Dissertation Title: Perceptual Effects of Phonetic Mismatches
Dissertation advisor: Dr. Alvin M. Liberman

Research and Management Experience:

2006-2008 Program Director, Documenting Endangered Languages and Cognitive Neuroscience. US National Science Foundation (NSF), Arlington, VA., USA.

2000-present Vice President of Research, Haskins Laboratories.

1996-present Principal Investigator, "Links between production and perception in speech," [U.S.] National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.

1995- present Co-Principal Investigator, "Ontogeny of attunement to the language environment," [U.S.] National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Catherine T. Best, Principal Investigator.

2001-2006 Subcontractor, Electronic Metastructure for Endangered Languages Data (E-MELD) grant, [U.S.] National Science Foundation; Helen Aristar-Dry and Anthony Aristar, Principal Investigators.

2004 Principal Investigator, "Shared Instrumentation Grant: Aloka SSD-5500 Ultrasound machine," [U.S.] National Center for Research Resources.

1991-1994 Principal Investigator, "Effects of word frequency and the common/proper dimension in speech," [U.S.] National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.

1982-present Senior Scientist at Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut. Research topics include speech perception, speech production and neural imaging.

1982-1990 Supervision of the research efforts of visiting scholars using the Laboratories' equipment under an NIH contract.

1983-1986 Co-Principal Investigator, "Perceptual bases of stress-timing," [U.S.] National Science Foundation, Carol Fowler, Principal Investigator.

1978-1982 Research Assistant at Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut. Research, leading to dissertation, on the processing of speech with mismatched information, and on the integration of several cues to one phonetic category.


2008- Fellow, Acoustical Society of America

2007 Director's Award for Program Management Excellence, National Science Foundation

Technical Experience:

2003- Implementation of Haskins Optically Corrected Ultrasound System (HOCUS) for measurement of the tongue and other speech articulators.

1987-1988 Manager of Research Resources--acquisition and management of all research equipment in Haskins Laboratories

1982-1986 Systems Manager and programmer for the VAX/VMS 11/780.

1982-1987 Documentation Director for Haskins Laboratories--writing the system user's guide, as well as reviewing and rewriting user manuals and on-line documentation for the entire programming staff.

1982-1985 Programmer--writing user-oriented programs for the manipulation of speech (FORTRAN, C).

1979-1982 Writing data analysis programs. Programming the generation of linguistic forms (PL/I, LISP).


DiCanio, C. T., Nam, H., Amith, J. D., Whalen, D. H., & Castillo García, R. (2015). Vowel variability in elicited versus running speech: Evidence from Mixtec. Journal of Phonetics, 48, 45-59.

Yang, B., & Whalen, D. H. (2015). Perception and production of American English vowels by American males and females. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 35, 121-141.

Noiray, A., Iskarous, K., & Whalen, D. H. (2014). Variability in English vowels is comparable in articulation and acoustics. Laboratory Phonology, 5, 271–288.

DiCanio, C. T., Nam, H., Whalen, D. H., Bunnell, H. T., Amith, J. D., & Castillo García, R. (2013). Using automatic alignment to analyze endangered language data: Testing the viability of untrained alignment. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, 2235-2246.

Iskarous, K., Mooshammer, C. M., Hoole, P., Recasens, D., Shadle, C. H., Saltzman, E., & Whalen, D. H. (2013). The Coarticulation/Invariance Scale: Mutual Information as a measure of coarticulation resistance, motor synergy, and articulatory invariance in speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, 1271-1282.

Mayer, C., Gick, B., Weigel, T., & Whalen, D. H. (2013). Perceptual integration of visual evidence of the airstream from aspirated stops. Canadian Acoustics, 41(3), 23-27.

Nam, H., Giulivi, S., Goldstein, L. M., Levitt, A. G., & Whalen, D. H. (2013). Computational simulation of CV combination preferences in babbling. Journal of Phonetics, 41, 63-77.

Nam, H., Mooshammer, C., Iskarous, K., & Whalen, D. H. (2013). Hearing tongue loops: Perceptual sensitivity to acoustic signatures of articulatory dynamics. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, 3808-3817.

DiCanio, C. T., Nam, H., Whalen, D. H., Bunnell, H. T., Amith, J. D., & Castillo García, R. (2012). Assessing agreement level between forced alignment models with data from endangered language documentation corpora Proceedings of Interspeech 2012.

Iskarous, K., McDonough, J. M., & Whalen, D. H. (2012). A gestural account of the velar contrast in Navajo. Laboratory Phonology, 3, 195–210.

Katz, L., Brancazio, L., Irwin, J., Katz, S., Magnuson, J., & Whalen, D. H. (2012). What lexical decision and naming tell us about reading. Reading and Writing, 25, 1259-1282.

Whalen, D. H., Giulivi, S., Nam, H., Levitt, A. G., Hallé, P. A., & Goldstein, L. M. (2012). Biomechanically preferred consonant-vowel combinations occur in adult lexicons but not in spoken language. Language and Speech, 55, 503-515.

Whalen, D. H., & McDonough, J. M. (2015). Taking the laboratory into the field. Annual Review of Linguistics, 1, 395–415.

Whalen, D. H., & Simons, G. F. (2012). Endangered language families. Language, 88, 155-173.

Whalen, D. H., Zunshine, L., & Holquist, M. (2012). Theory of Mind and embedding of perspective: A psychological test of a literary "sweet spot". Scientific Study of Literature, 2(2), 301-315.

Giulivi, S., Whalen, D. H., Goldstein, L. M., Nam, H., & Levitt, A. G. (in press). An Articulatory Phonology account of preferred consonant-vowel combinations. Language Learning and Development.

Honorof, D. N., & Whalen, D. H. (in press). Identification of speaker sex from one vowel across a range of fundamental frequencies. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

Irwin, J. R., Tornatore, L. A., Brancazio, L., & Whalen, D. H. (in press). Can children with autism spectrum disorders "hear" a speaking face? Child Development.

Iskarous, K., Fowler, C. A., & Whalen, D. H. (in press). Locus equations are an acoustic expression of articulator synergy. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

Iskarous, K., Nam, H., & Whalen, D. H. 2010. Perception of articulatory dynamics from acoustic signatures. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127, 3717-3728.

McDonough, J., & Whalen, D. H. 2008. The phonetics of native North American languages. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 423-426.

Mongillo, E. A., Irwin, J. R., Whalen, D. H., Klaiman, C., Carter, A. S., & Schultz, R. T. 2008. Audiovisual processing in children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1349-1358.

Whalen, D. H., Levitt, A. G., & Goldstein, L. M. 2007. VOT in the babbling of French- and English-learning infants. Journal of Phonetics, 35: 341-352.

Golumbic, E., Deouell, L. Y., Whalen, D. H., & Bentin, S. 2007. Representation of harmonic frequencies in auditory memory: A mismatch negativity study. Psychophysiology, 44, 671-679

Benson, R. R., Richardson, M., Whalen, D. H., & Lai, S. 2006. Phonetic processing areas revealed by sinewave speech and acoustically similar non-speech. NeuroImage, 31: 342-353.

Irwin, J. R., Whalen, D. H., & Fowler, C. A. 2006. A sex difference in visual influence on heard speech. Perception and Psychophysics, 68, 582-592.

Krakow, R. A., & Whalen, D. H. 2006. Obituary: Ignatius G. Mattingly. Acoustics Today 2(4): 61.

Whalen, D. H., Benson, R. R., Richardson, M., Swainson, B., Clark, V., Lai, S., et al. 2006. Differentiation for speech and nonspeech processing within primary auditory cortex. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119, 575–581.

Whalen, D. H., & Lindblom, B. E. 2006. Speech, biological basis. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (2nd ed.), vol. 12, pp. 61-68. Oxford: Elsevier.

Whalen, D. H., Iskarous, K., Tiede, M. K., Ostry, D. J., Lehnert-LeHouillier, H., Vatikiotis-Bateson, E., & D. S. Hailey 2005. HOCUS, the Haskins Optically-Corrected Ultrasound System. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48: 543-553.

Honorof, D. N., & Whalen, D. H. 2005. Perception of pitch location within a speaker's F0 range. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 117: 2193-2200.

Whalen, D. H., Magen, H. S., Pouplier, M., Kang, A. M., & Iskarous, K. 2004. Letter to the editor. Language, 80: 648-649.

Whalen, D. H., Magen, H. S., Pouplier, M., Kang, A. M., & Iskarous, K. 2004. Vowel production and perception: Hyperarticulation without a hyperspace effect. Language and Speech 47: 155-174.

Whalen, D. H., Magen, H. S., Pouplier, M., Kang, A. M., & Iskarous, K. 2004. Vowel targets without a hyperspace effect. Language, 80: 377-378.

Whalen, D. H. 2004. How the study of endangered languages will revolutionize linguistics. In P.van Sterkenburg (Ed.), Linguistics today: Facing a greater challenge (pp. 321-342). Amsterdam:John Benjamins.

Magen, H. S., Kang, A. M., Tiede, M., & Whalen, D. H. 2003. Posterior pharyngeal wall position in the production of speech. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research 46: 241-251.

Peterson, B. S., Vohr, B., Kane, M. J., Whalen, D. H., Schneider, K. C., Katz, K. H., et al. 2002. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of language processing and its cognitive correlates in prematurely born children. Pediatrics, 110: 1153-1162.

Benson, Randall R, D. H. Whalen, Matthew Richardson, Brook Swainson, Vincent Clark, Song Lai, and Alvin M. Liberman 2001. "Parametrically dissociating speech and non-speech perception in the brain using fMRI." Brain and Language, 78: 364-396.

Liberman, Alvin M., and D. H. Whalen. 2000. "On the relation of speech to language." Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4: 187-196.

Whalen, D. H. 2000. "Alvin M. Liberman - 1917-2000 - Obituary." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 108: 2693.

Whalen, D. H. 2000. "Occam's razor is a double-edged sword: Reduced interaction is not necessarily reduced power." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23: 351.

Whalen, D. H., Gick, B., & LeSourd, P. S. 1999. Intrinsic F0 in Passamaquoddy vowels. In D. H. Pentland (Ed.), Papers from the 30th Algonquian conference (pp. 417-428). Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.

Whalen, D. H., A. Min Kang, Harriet Magen, Robert K. Fulbright, & John C. Gore, 1999. Predicting pharynx shape from tongue position during vowel production. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 42: 592-603.

Whalen, D. H., Gick, B., Kumada, M., & Honda, K. 1998. Cricothyroid activity in high and low vowels: Exploring the automaticity of intrinsic F0. Journal of Phonetics 27: 125-142.

Whalen, D. H., Bryan Gick, Masanobu Kumada, and Kiyoshi Honda. 1998. "EMG evidence for the automaticity of intrinsic F0 of vowels." In Proceedings of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and 135th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, edited by Patricia K. Kuhl and Lawrence A. Crum, vol. 4, pp. 2951-2952.

Whalen, D. H. 1997. "What duplex perception tells us about speech perception." In Papers from the panels, CLS 33, edited by Kora Singer, Randall Eggert and Gregory Anderson, pp. 435-446. Chicago:Chicago Linguistic Society.

Whalen, D. H., Catherine T. Best, and Julia Irwin. 1997. "Lexical effects in the perception and production of American English /p/ allophones." Journal of Phonetics 25: 501-528.

Xu, Yi, Alvin M. Liberman, and D. H. Whalen. 1997. "On the immediacy of phonetic perception." Psychological Science 8: 358-362.

Whalen, D. H., and J. M. Kinsella-Shaw. 1997. "Exploring the relationship of breath intake to utterance duration," Phonetica 54: 138-152.

Whalen, D. H., and Sonya Sheffert. 1997. "Normalization of vowels by breath sounds." In Talker variability in speech processing, edited by Keith Johnson and John W. Mullenix, pp. 133-144. New York:Academic Press.

Whalen, D. H. and Alvin M. Liberman. 1996. "Limits on phonetic integration in duplex perception." Perception and Psychophysics, 58: 857-870.

Whalen, D. H., and Sonya Sheffert. 1996. "Perceptual use of vowel and speaker information in breath sounds." In Proceedings ICSLP 97, edited by H. Timothy Bunnell and William Idsardi, pp. 2494-2497.

Levitt, Andrea G., D. H. Whalen, Iris Smorodinsky, and Pai-Ling Hsiao. 1995. "La Fréquence fondamentale intrinsèque des voyelles dans le babillage des enfants de six à douze mois d'âge." In Le développement langagier: Une prédiction précoce est-elle possible?, edited by G. Knopczynski and S. Vinter, pp 67-79. Calais: Orthoeditions.

Whalen, D. H. 1995. "Directions in speech perception research." In European studies in phonetics and speech communication, ed. by G. Bloothooft, V. Hazan, D. Huber, and J. Llisteri, pp. 76-80. CIP-Gegevens Koninklijke Bibliotheek: The Hague.

Whalen, D. H., Andrea G. Levitt, Pai-Ling Hsiao, Julia Irwin, and Winifred McGowan. 1995. "Intrinsic F0 in the babbling of Mandarin-learning infants." In Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, volume 4, pp 420-423. Stockholm.

Whalen, D. H., and Andrea G. Levitt. 1995. "The universality of intrinsic F0 of vowels." Journal of Phonetics, 23: 349-366.

Whalen, D. H., Andrea G. Levitt, Pai-Ling Hsiao, and Iris Smorodinsky. 1995. "Intrinsic F0 of vowels in the babbling of 6-, 9- and 12-month-old French- and English-learning infants." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97:2533-2539..

Whalen, D. H., Charles E. Hoequist, and Sonya Sheffert. 1995. "The effects of breath sounds on the perception of synthetic speech." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97: 3147-3153.

Whalen, D. H., and Elizabeth C. Zsiga. 1994. "Subjective familiarity of English word/name homophones," Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 26: 402-408.

Whalen D. H., Arthur S. Abramson, Leigh Lisker, and Maria Mody 1993. "F0 gives voicing information even with unambiguous voice onset times," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 47: 36-49.

Whalen, D. H. 1992. "Perception of overlapping segments: Thoughts on Nearey's model," Journal of Phonetics, 20: 493-496.

Whalen D. H., Yi Xu 1992. "Information for Mandarin tones in the amplitude contour and in brief segments," Phonetica, 49: 25-47.

Whalen D. H., Andrea G. Levitt, and Qi Wang 1991. "Intonational differences between the reduplicative babbling of French- and English-learning infants," Journal of Child Language, 18: 501-516.

Whalen, D. H. 1991. "Subcategorical phonetic mismatches and lexical access," Perception and Psychophysics, 50: 351-360.

Whalen, D. H. 1991. "Perception of the English [s]-[S] distinction relies on fricative noises and transitions, not on brief spectral slices." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90: 1776-1785.

Whalen, D. H. 1991 "Categorical, prototypical and gradient theories of speech: Reaction time data." In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Aix-en-Provence, Vol 3, pp. 90-93.

Whalen D. H., E. R. Wiley, Philip E. Rubin, and Franklin S. Cooper 1990. "The Haskins Laboratories pulse code modulation (PCM) system," Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 22: 550-559.

Whalen D. H., Arthur S. Abramson, Leigh Lisker, and Maria Mody 1990. "Gradient effects of fundamental frequency on stop consonant voicing judgments," Phonetica, 47: 36-49.

Whalen, D. H. 1990. "Coarticulation is largely planned," Journal of Phonetics, 18: 3-35.

Nittrouer, Susan, and D. H. Whalen 1989. "The perceptual effects of child-adult differences in fricative-vowel coarticulation," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 86: 1266-1276.

Whalen, D. H. 1989. "Vowel and consonant judgments are not independent when cued by the same information," Perception and Psychophysics, 46: 284-292.

Whalen, D. H., and Patrice S. Beddor 1989. "Connections between nasality and vowel duration and height: Elucidation of the Eastern Algonquian intrusive nasal," Language, 65: 457-486.

Whalen D. H., Andre M. Cooper, and Carol A. Fowler 1989. "P-Center judgments are generally insensitive to the instructions given," Phonetica, 46: 197-203.

Cooper, Andre M., D. H. Whalen, and Carol A. Fowler 1988. "The syllable's rhyme affects its P-center as a unit," Journal of Phonetics, 16: 231-241

Fowler, Carol A., D. H. Whalen, and Andre M. Cooper 1988. "Perceived timing is produced timing: A reply to Howell", Perception and Psychophysics, 43: 94-98.

Whalen, D. H., and Alvin M. Liberman 1987. "Speech perception takes precedence over nonspeech perception," Science, 237: 169-171.

Cooper, Andre M., D. H. Whalen, and Carol A. Fowler 1986. "P-centers are unaffected by phonetic categorization", Perception and Psychophysics, 39: 187-196.

Whalen, D. H., and Arthur G. Samuel 1985. "Phonetic information is integrated across intervening nonlinguistic sounds," Perception and Psychophysics, 37: 579-587.

Whalen, D. H. 1984. "Subcategorical phonetic mismatches slow phonetic judgments," Perception and Psychophysics, 35: 49-64.

Whalen, D. H. 1983. "Vowel information in postvocalic fricative noises." Language and Speech 26: 91-100.

Whalen, D. H. 1982. "Perceptual Effects of Phonetic Mismatches." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.

Whalen, D. H. 1981. "Effects of vocalic formant transitions and vowel quality on the English [s]-[s#] boundary." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 69: 275-282.

Whalen, D. H. 1981. "When anaphors are metaphors." In Papers from the Seventh LACUS Forum, edited by James Copeland and Phillip Davis, pp. 276-283. Hornbeam Press, Columbia, SC.

Whalen, D. H. 1980. "The Native Speaker and indeterminacy." In Festschrift for Native Speaker, edited by Florian Coulmas. Mouton, The Hague.

Whalen, D. H. 1980. Review of The said and the unsaid, by Stephen Tyler, Lingua 52: 147-150.

Whalen, D. H. 1979. Review of The semantics of metaphor, by Samuel R. Levin, Lingua 48: 264-271.


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