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Published Research 

Research from our laboratory and from our colleagues has provided promising results for clinical applications of ultrasound to speech disorders.  As an evidence-based field, it is important that speech-language pathologists are using treatment strategies that have data supporting the efficacy of their work. To date, the studies that exist are small in scale, representing primarily Phase I (case studies) and Phase II (small scale controlled) research.  Evidence addressing outcomes for ultrasound biofeedback include the following studies from our work:

Preston, J.L., McCabe, P., Rivera-Campos, A., Whittle, J.L., Landry, E. & Maas, E. (in press). Ultrasound visual feedback treatment and practice variability for residual speech sound errors. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. doi:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-14-0031

Preston, J. L., Brick, N., & Landi, N. (2013). Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech. (4), 627-643. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2013/12-0139)    Funded by the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America (

Preston, J. L., & Leaman, M. (2014). Ultrasound visual feedback for acquired apraxia of speech: A case report. Aphasiology, 28(3), 278-295.  doi: 10.1080/02687038.2013.852901 

Additional examples research on ultrasound for speech disorders includes the following:

Adler-Bock, M., Bernhardt, B., Gick, B., & Bacsfalvi, P. (2007). The use of ultrasound in remediation of North American English /r/ in 2 adolescents. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(2), 128-139.( doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2007/017)

Bernhardt, B., Bacsfalvi, P., Adler-Bock, M., Shimizu, R., Cheney, A., Giesbrecht, N., . . . Radanov, B. (2008). Ultrasound as visual feedback in speech habilitation: Exploring consultative use in rural British Columbia, Canada. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 22(2), 149 - 162. (doi: 10.1080/02699200701801225)

Bernhardt, B., Bacsfalvi, P., Gick, B., Radanov, B., & Williams, R. (2005). Exploring the use of electropalatography and ultrasound in speech habilitation. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 29(4), 169-182.

Bernhardt, B., Gick, B., Bacsfalvi, P., & Adler-Bock, M. (2005). Ultrasound in speech therapy with adolescents and adults. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 19(6/7), 605-617. doi:10.1080/02699200500114028

Bernhardt, B., Gick, B., Bacsfalvi, P., & Ashdown, J. (2003). Speech habilitation of hard of hearing adolescents using electropalatography and ultrasound as evaluated by trained listeners. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 17(3), 199 - 216. doi:10.1080/0269920031000071451

Bacsfalvi, P. (2010). Attaining the lingual components of /r/ with ultrasound for three adolescents with cochlear implants. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 34(3), 206-217.

Bacsfalvi, P., & Bernhardt, B. M. (2011). Long-term outcomes of speech therapy for seven adolescents with visual feedback technologies: ultrasound and electropalatography. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 25(11-12), 1034-1043. doi: 10.3109/02699206.2011.618236

Bacsfalvi, P., Bernhardt, B. M., & Gick, B. (2007). Electropalatography and ultrasound in vowel remediation for adolescents with hearing impairment. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9(1), 36-45. doi: doi:10.1080/14417040601101037

Fawcett, S., Bacsfalvi, P., & Bernhardt, B. (2008). Ultrasound as visual feedback in speech therapy for/r/with adults with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Quarterly, 10(1), 4-12.

Klein, H. B., McAllister Byun, T., Davidson, L., & Grigos, M. I. (2013). A multidimensional investigation of children's /r/ productions: Perceptual, ultrasound, and acoustic measures. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22(3), 540-553. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2013/12-0137)

Modha, G., Bernhardt, B., Church, R., & Bacsfalvi, P. (2008). Ultrasound in treatment of /r/: A case study. Intl. Jnl. of Lang. & Communication Disorders, 43 (3), 43(3), 323-329.
Shawker, T. H., & Sonies, B. C. (1985). Ultrasound biofeedback for speech training: Instrumentation and preliminary results. Investigative Radiology, 20(1), 90-93.

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